秒速赛车大小单双计划

非常规天然气资源的勘探开发

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秒速赛车大小单双计划     RUGUOSHUOMEITANSHIGAOTANZIYUAN、SHIYOUSHIZHONGTANZIYUAN,FEICHANGGUINENGYUANJIUSHIZUIXIANSHIDEDITANZIYUAN。YINQIJUYOUDITAN、JIEJING、LVSE、DIWURANDETEXING,KAIFAJISHURIYICHENGSHU,YICHENGWEIDANGJINXINNENGYUANFAZHANDEZHONGYAOFANGXIANG。1.MEICENGQI“MEICENGQISHUYUFEICHANGGUITIANRANQI。”ZHONGGUODIZHIDAXUEDEYANGQIYUANSHIZHEIYANGSHUO:“SHOUXIAN,MEIKUANGZHONGDEZHEIZHONGQITI,JI“MEIKUANGWASI”RONGYIBAOZHA,YANZHONGWEIXIEKUANGJINGGONGZUORENYUANDEANQUAN;QICI,ZHEIZHONGQITIKEYIZUOWEIXINDEJIETINENGYUANJIAYIKAIFALIYONG;ZAICI,CAIMEICHANSHENGDEMEICENGQIJIAWANPAIFANGDAODAQIZHONGYINQIWENSHIXIAOYING,WURANHUANJING。KAIFALIYONGMEICENGQIJUYOUSHEHUI、JINGJIYUHUANBAOFANGMIANJIQIZHONGYAODEYIYI。RUGUOZAICAIMEIZHIQIANXIANCAICHUMEICENGQIHUISHOULIYONG,BUJINZENGJIAXINDENENGYUAN,ERQIEMEIKUANGSHENGCHANZHONGDEWASIJIANGDADAJIANGDI,JIANSHAOWASIBAOZHASHIGUDEFASHENG,YOUXIAODIGAISHANMEIKUANGANQUAN,GAISHANHUANJING,JIANGDICAIMEIDECHENGBEN。”MEICENGQIZHUYAOCHENGFEN(TONGCHANGZHAN90%YISHANG)SHIJIAWAN(CH?)。ZAICHANGWENXIAQIREZHIWEI34—37ZHAOJIAO/MEILIFANGMI(MJ/M?)YUTIANRANQIDEREZHIXIANGDANG,,SHIYIZHONGHENHAODEGAOXIAOQINGJIEQITIYUANLIAO。JIAWANSHIZAOCHENGHUANJINGWENSHIXIAOYINGDESANZHONGZHUYAOQITI(JIAWAN、ERYANGHUATANHEFULIANG)ZHIYI,QIWENSHIXIAOYINGHENQIANG,BIERYANGHUATANZUOYONGDA20BEI(LINGYISHUOFAWEI10BEI)。JIAWANPAIRUDAQI,BUJINYINQIWENSHIXIAOYINGJIANGYINQIQIHOUYICHANG,ERQIEHAIXIAOHAODAQIPINGLIUCENGDECHOUYANG,TADUICHOUYANGCENGDEPOHUAINENGLISHIERYANGHUATANDE7BEI,XUERUOLEDIQIUDUITAIYANGZIWAIXIANQINXIDEFANGHUZUOYONG,WEIHAIRENLEIJIANKANG。WOGUOMEINIANYINCAIMEIXIANGDAQIPAIFANGDEJIAWANLIANGZHANSHIJIECAIMEIPAIFANGJIAWANZONGLIANGDESANFENZHIYI,YINQILESHIJIEDEPUBIANGUANZHU。《JINGDOUYIDINGSHU》ZHONGGUIDINGLEGEGUODEWENSHIQITIJIANPAILIANG,YINGGAISHUOWOGUODUIMEITANSHENGCHANJINXINGZHILIPOZAIMEIJIE。ZHANGQIYILAI,WEILEBIMIANWASIBAOZHASHIGUERCAIQUDEZUIZHUYAOFANGFASHI“TONGFENG”,JIXIANGKUANGJINGNEIGURUDALIANGKONGQI,BAKUANGJINGZHONGDEMEICENGQIPAICHUFANGKONG。XIANZAIWOGUOYIYOUYIXIEMEIKUANGQIYEJIANGCHOUFANGCHUDEMEIKUANGWASIZUOWEINENGYUANLIYONG,SHIBIANHAIWEILIDEZHONGYAOCUOSHI。WOGUOMEICENGQICHULIANGHEKAIFALIYONGXIANZHUANGSHIZENYANGDENI?JIEZHIMUQIANWOGUOYITANMINGMEICENGQIDIZHICHULIANG1023.08×108m,QIZHONGYIDIMIANKAIFAWEIZHUTANMINGCHULIANG754.44×108m,KUANGJINGCHOUFANGWEIZHUTANMINGCHULIANG268.64×108m。

    WOGUOMEICENGQIKAIFALIYONGQIBUJIAOWAN,QIFAZHANDATIKEFENWEISANGEJIEDUAN:

    第一阶段(20世纪50-70年代末):为减少煤矿矿井瓦斯灾害的井下抽放与利用阶段,这一阶段所抽放的瓦斯基本上都被排到大气中,很少对其进行利用。
    第二阶段(20世纪70年代末-90年代初):为煤层气勘探开发试验初期和煤层气井下抽放利用阶段。我国先后在抚顺龙凤矿、阳泉矿、焦作中马村矿、湖南里王庙矿等矿区地面钻孔40余个,并且进行了水力压裂试验和研究。同时,大量的煤层气井下抽放和利用项目进一步展开。至1993年,井下抽放系统年抽放量达4×108m,部分地区已开始将其用于工业和民用取暖。
    第三阶段(20世纪90年代初开始至今)为煤层气的勘探开采试验全面展开和井下规模抽放利用阶段。这一阶段开始引进国外煤层气开发技术,开展了煤层气的勘探试验,取得了实质性突破。煤炭、地矿、石油系统和部分地方政府积极参与此项工作,许多国外公司如美国Texaco、Arco、Phillips、Greka石油公司及澳大利亚的Lowell石油公司等也积极投资在中国进行煤层气勘探试验。中国煤层气地面勘探工作开始于1989年,到目前为止已在12个省、自治区登记了64个煤层气勘探区块,勘探区块总面积为81810.3km。其中,具有煤层气商业化开发前景的十大重要勘探区块是沁水盆地南部、沁水盆地北部、大宁-吉县区块、陕西韩城区块、神府-保德区块、阜新盆地、宁武盆地、准噶尔盆地、恩洪-老厂区块及沈北-铁法地区。在我国未来几十年内天然气将获得飞速的发展。西气东输是煤层气产业发展的一次难得的历史机遇,根据“西气东输”工程的供气能力和设计年限估算,需要1万亿立方米的天然气地质储量作保证,但目前常规天然气地质探明储量仅7000亿立方米左右,急需补充气源,煤层气作为非常规天然气,其成分95%以上是甲烷,完全可以与天然气混输、混用。同时“西气东输”管线经过的地区也是煤层气资源富集的地区,塔北、鄂尔多斯盆地、沁水盆地、太行山东、豫西、徐淮和淮南等煤层气富集带,总资源量近14万亿立方米,而且管线经过的沁水大型煤层气田,已经获得煤层气探明储量,在短期内优先开发这些地区的煤层气资源最具有现实性和可行性。煤层气产业是一项庞大的系统工程,建设一个煤层气生产基地,除了带动运输、钢铁、水泥、化工、电力、生活服务等相关产业的发展外,也将带动下游相关产业的发展,如煤层气的管道运输、家用煤层气的供应、气体燃料汽车和化工产品的开发等,还能推动本行业的相关技术、科研等产业,促进整个产业的良性发展,如钻机、煤层气抽采及输送设备、监测监控设备、煤层气发电设备、利用煤层气生产化工原料设备等产业。据此,我国煤层气产业一旦形成和发展起来,将给相关产业带来巨大的发展机会和经济效益。

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秒速赛车大小单双计划     ZHONGGUOXUDUOPENDIFAYUYOUDUOTAOMEIXIJIANSENI、YEYANDICENG,HUCENGFENBUDATAODEZHIMISHAYANCUNZAIGENYUANQI、YEYANQIFAYUYOULITIAOJIAN,BUTONGGUIMODETIANRANQIFAXIAN,DANMUQIANSHANGWEIZAIDAMIANJIQUYUNEISHIXIANTIANRANQIKANTANDEJINYITUPO。ZILIAOXIANSHI,ZHONGGUONANFANGHAIXIANGYEYANDICENGKENENGSHIYEYANQIDEZHUYAOFUJIDIQU。CHUCIZHIWAI,SONGLIAO、EERDUOSI、TUHA、ZHUNGAERDENGLUXIANGCHENJIPENDIDEYEYANDICENGYEYOUYEYANQIFUJIDEJICHUHETIAOJIAN。ZHONGQINGQIJIANG、WANSHENG、NANCHUAN、WULONG、PENGSHUI、YOUYANG、XIUSHANHEWUXIDENGQUXIANSHIYEYANQIZIYUANZUIYOULIDECHENGKUANGQUDAI,YINCIBEIQUEDINGWEISHOUPISHIDIKANCHAGONGZUOMUBIAOQU。YEYANQIZANGDECHUCENGYIBANCHENGDIKONG、DISHENTOULVDEWUXINGTEZHENG,QILIUDEZULIBICHANGGUITIANRANQIDA,SUOYOUDEJINGDOUXUYAOSHISHICHUCENGYALIEGAIZAOCAINENGKAICAICHULAI,KAICAINANDUHENDA。JIAOWEIXIANJINDEYOUKONGQIZUANJIJISHU。

    天然气水合物因其外观像冰一样而且遇火即可燃烧,所以又被称作“可燃冰”或者“固体瓦斯”和“气冰”。它自然界广泛分布在大陆、岛屿的斜坡地带、活动和被动大陆边缘的隆起处、极地大陆架以及海洋和一些内陆湖的深水环境。在标准状况下,1单位体积的天然气水合物分解最多可产生164单位体积的甲烷气体,因而其是一种重要的潜在未来资源。
    19世纪30年代初,人们开始注意到天然气输气管线中形成的天然气水合物。因为水合物造成的天然气输气管道堵塞问题给天然气工业带来许多麻烦。1934年,前苏联在西伯利亚地区被堵塞的天然气输气管道里首先发现了天然气水合物。同年,美国学者Hammerschmidt发表了水合物造成天然气输气管线堵塞的有关数据,人们开始更加详细地研究天然气水合物和它的性质。可燃冰由海洋板块活动而成。当海洋板块下沉时,较古老的海底地壳会下沉到地球内部,海底石油和天然气便随板块的边缘涌上表面。当接触到冰冷的海水和在深海压力下,天然气与海水产生化学作用,就形成水合物。科学家估计,海底可燃冰分布的范围约占海洋总面积的10%,相当于4000万平方公里,是迄今为止海底最具价值的矿产资源,足够人类使用1000年。“可燃冰”的形成有三个基本条件:首先温度不能太高,在零度以上可以生成,0-10℃为宜,最高限是20℃左右,过高会引起分解。第二要有足够压力,但不能太大,0℃时,30个大气压以上它就可能生成。第三,地底要有气源。因为,在陆地只有西伯利亚的永久冻土层才具备形成条件和使之保持稳定的固态,而海洋深层300-500米的沉积物中都可能具备这样的低温高压条件。因此,其分布的陆海比例为1∶100。有天然气的地方不一定都有“可燃冰”,因为它的形成除了压力主要还在于低温,所以一般在冰土带的地方较多。长期以来,有人认为我国的海域纬度较低,不可能存在“可燃冰”,而实际上我国东海、南海都具备生成条件。我国东海,南海天然气水合物资源量极为丰富。

    WOGUONANHAITIANRANQISHUIHEWUDEZIYUANLIANGWEI700YIDUNYOUDANGLIANG,YUEXIANGDANGWOGUOMUQIANLUSHANGSHIYOU、TIANRANQIZIYUANLIANGZONGSHUDEERFENZHIYI。DONGHAIPENDIMIANJIDA25WANPINGFANGGONGLI。JING20NIANKANCE,GAIPENDIYIHUODE1484YILIFANGMITIANRANQITANMINGJIAKONGZHICHULIANG。ZHONGGUOGONGCHENGYUANYUANSHI、HAIYANGZHUANJIAJINXIANGLONGDAILINGDEKETIZUGENJUTIANRANQISHUIHUAWUCUNZAIDEBIBEITIAOJIAN,ZAIDONGHAIZHAOCHULE“KERANBING”CUNZAIDEWENDUHEYALIFANWEI,BINGGENJUDIWENTIDU、JIEHEDONGHAIDIZHITIAOJIAN,GOUHUACHU“KERANBING”DEFENBUQUYU,JISUANCHUTADEWENDINGDAIDEHOUDU,DUIZIYUANLIANGZUOLECHUBUPINGGU,DECHU“YUNZANGLIANGHENKEGUAN”JIELUN。ZHEIWEIZHOUBIANDIQUZAIXINSHIJISHIYONGGAOXIAOXINNENGYUANKAIPILEGENGGUANGKUODEQIANJING。JULEJIE,QUANQIUTIANRANQISHUIHEWUDECHULIANGSHIXIANYOUTIANRANQI、SHIYOUCHULIANGDELIANGBEI。

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